What’s the role of medication for insomnia?

Medication for insomniaAlthough the best long term treatments for insomnia are non-drug strategies to change thinking and behaviour around sleep, there is a role for medication. One of the problems though is that there is no perfect medication, and often the effects of medication wear off after a while. So medications are often used to ‘buy time’ to work on other treatments and give people some success with better sleep and allows them to feel better. This in turn puts them in a better position to work on non-drug treatments.

What should I expect from a medication for insomnia?

Unfortunately none of the medications that are available for sleep are perfect, so it’s important to understand the limitations of medications and not expect too much.

The perfect sleeping tablet would:

  • Work quickly every time it was taken
  • Work for 7-8 hours
  • Allow people to wake up feeling refreshed with no carry-over effects
  • Have no side-effects
  • Maintain it’s effect in the long-term
  • Have no potential for addiction or becoming dependent

However, no medications meet all or even most of these criteria. So in choosing a medication it’s important to determine what is important to the individual as different medications have different profiles. For example, some do work quickly, but only last 3-4 hours, whereas others can take longer to work, but last for 5-6 hours.

Research on most common medications used shows that they:

  • Shorten the time to get to sleep by 15-30 minutes
  • Give people 15-30 minutes more sleep per night
  • Reduce the number of awakenings

These results are very different from what is sometimes expected from medications, and highlights that if people rely on medications alone they may be disappointed.

When are medications used?

Short-term use of medications is common in acute (short-term) insomnia. (For an explanation of acute vs chronic insomnia see this post.) In chronic (more than 3 months) insomnia there is not high quality research to guide when to use medication in the treatment of long-term or chronic insomnia. But, research in the last few years suggests that if people are very distressed about their sleep, using medication whilst in parallel working on non-drug treatments gives the best results.

So, my usual practice is to focus on non-drug treatments for insomnia, but if someone is having a lot of trouble and not managing well through the day, to also start a medication. I’ll aim to reduce the medication once people’s symptoms begin to settle as they get more confidence in managing their sleep. That is usually in around 6 weeks to 3 months, but can be longer, particularly if people have either very severe insomnia, other health problems, or a tendency to anxiety which can make insomnia symptoms take longer to settle.

In Australia, the only medication for insomnia approved for use for more than 3 months is suvorexant. This causes  problems for people who have insomnia because of chronic health problems as they may need ongoing treatment with medications.

What medications are used?

Rather than using the same medication in each person, I use a range of medication depending on people’s individual circumstances. Some people just have trouble getting to sleep, so will do better with a medication that has a quick onset and doesn’t last for long. Other people wake after 3-4 hours and have trouble in the second half of the night. They need a medication that lasts longer, but this comes with the risk of medication not completely wearing off by the time they need to get up in the morning.

I’ll also try to get an idea of the underlying mechanisms for people’s insomnia. If someone has insomnia because of a body clock problem, then melatonin may be helpful. Whereas if they have trouble switching off, drugs that block alerting neurotransmitters may be more helpful.

So, rather than have a ‘go to’ drug that works for everyone, it’s a matter of matching the medication choice to people’s symptoms and the factors that are contributing to their insomnia.

Specific medications:

Benzodiazepines (BDZs): These are the most commonly used and widely known prescription sleeping tablets, and include medications such as:

  • temazepam (Temaze, Normison, Temtabs)
  • nitrazepam (Alodorm, Modagon)
  • oxazepam (Murelax, Serepax)
  • flunitrazepam (Hypnodorm)

BDZs are generally quick acting and last around 4 hours, but longer in some people. They can also lose their effect over time in some people leading to increases in the dose or the need to switch to other medications. BDZs work by acting on the GABA receptor and also have some effect on anxiety and cause muscle relaxation. So they can be a good fit if there is insomnia together with anxiety or muscle tension. But can cause problems with sleep apnea where they can worsen relaxation of muscles in the upper airway and make sleep apnea worse.

Benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BDZRAs): These are also commonly used and include:

  • zolpidem (Stilnox)
  • zolpidem extended release (Stilnox CR)
  • zopiclone (Imovane)

BDZRAs are generally quick acting, with zopiclone generally taking a little longer to work, but acting for longer than zolpidem. They appear to have a lower risk of dependence than BDZs, but don’t have the same anti-anxiety effect, as they act more specifically just on the part of the GABA receptor that is involved with sleep. There has been some publicity about zolpidem (Stilnox) and sleep-walking or other unusual behaviours during sleep (parasomnias), but this is something that can be seen with any of the sleeping tablets, so not likely to be just related to Stilnox. Alcohol and stress can increase the risk of sleep walking with any of the sleeping tablets, so it’s important to also manage stress and avoid excessive alcohol when using sleeping tablets.

Because BDZRAs don’t have the same muscle relaxation effects during sleep, I’ll tend to use these more than BDZs in people with sleep apnea.

Melatonin / melatonin receptor agonists: These drugs increase melatonin production, so can be helpful particularly in people who have problems with their body clock that are contributing to their insomnia. Medications are:

  • melatonin (Circadin)
  • ramelteon (Rozerem – not available in Australia)

Circadin was tested as an insomnia treatment for people over the age of 55 for up to 3 months, so that is how it is recommended for use in Australia. As Circadian is a slow-release formulation of melatonin it is to be taken 1-2 hours before bed. Melatonin’s body clock promoting effects can take 2 weeks to occur, so it’s best suited to staying on it for weeks at a time rather than using on and off when used for long-term symptoms of poor sleep. Melatonin can be used in the short-term for a few days to help reduce symptoms of jet-lag.

Calcium channel alpha-2 delta ligands: Although initially developed as anti-epileptics and now more commonly used for pain, these related drugs have a role in insomnia:

  • gabapentin (Neurontin)
  • pregabalin (Lyrica)
  • gabapentin enacabril (Horizant – not available in Australia)

Gabapentin has been studied in insomnia, with a study that was published in 2014 showing good effects with longer sleep and less time awake during the night.

Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonists (DORAs): A new class of medications for insomnia are drugs that block orexin receptors. Orexin is a key neurotransmitter for promoting wakefulness, so blocking orexin reduces wake drive, allowing sleep to occur. Theoretically this means they may work better for the sort of insomnia where people have trouble switching off. There are a number of these drugs in this class:

  • suvorexant (Belsomra)
  • lemborexant (Dayvigo)
  • daridorexant (Quiviviq – not available in Australia)

Suvorexant has been shown to shorten the time taken to get to sleep and reduce the amount of time spent awake during the night, in 2 randomised controlled trials of 3 months of treatment. The most common side effect was sleepiness, experienced in around 5% of people taking suvorexant. There has also been a study of people using suvorexant continuously for 1 year showing it was safe and didn’t cause rebound insomnia with stopping the medication or problems with dependence. In Australia the approved starting dose for suvorexant is 20mg, whereas in the US it is 10mg.

Lemborexant was evaluated in a number of clinical trials. In SUNRISE 1, 1006 participants were randomised to placebo, zolpidem, lemborexant 5mg or lemborexant 10mg. Those taking lemborexant got to sleep 16.6min (5mg) and 19.5min (10mg) faster. Those taking zolpidem 6.25mg got to sleep 12.6min faster. Lemborexant also helped people have less wakefulness during the night by 50min (5mg) and 59.6min (10mg). With zolpidem people had 44.4 min less wakefulness.

Daridorexant reduced time to sleep by 6min (25mg dose) or 12min (50mg dose) and increased perceived sleep by 10 and 20 minutes.

Herbs & supplements: People commonly use herbs and supplements purchased over the counter to help with sleep. Common examples include:

  • valerian
  • hops
  • valerian & hops combination (Prosomnia)
  • passionflower
  • kava kava

The best research data in this area is for valerian with a meta-analysis of a number of individual studies suggesting valerian improves sleep. The combination of valerian and hops marketed in Australia as Prosomnia has also been shown in a number of studies to shorten the time to get to sleep, help people stay asleep and reduce awakenings. Because of the way herbs and supplements work, it can take some time for the full effect to build up, so they’re also better suited to using continuously over a few weeks rather than on and off.

Anti-histamines: These drugs are available over-the-counter and are commonly used by people before seeking advice from health professionals. They include:

  • promethazine (Phenergan)
  • doxylamine (Restavit)

Although people will commonly trial anti-histamines as they are available without prescription they have a number of problems. They are generally long-acting so can cause carry-over sedation. They also have anti-cholinergic effects which have recently been linked to a risk of developing dementia. I also find that people often become tolerant to anti-histamines quite quickly, so the effect wears off after a couple of weeks.

There are many sub-types of histamine, and this is an active area of research. It’s highly likely that in the future there will be anti-histamines that more selectively block the histamine sub-type involved with alertness and provide a ‘cleaner’ effect with fewer side effects.

Antidepressants: Some anti-depressants are used to help with sleep, they include:

  • amitriptyline  (Endep)
  • dothiepin (Dothep)
  • nortriptyline (Allegron)
  • mirtazepine (Avanza)
  • agomelatine (Valdoxan)

Most modern anti-depressants don’t do much for sleep, and can actually make insomnia or sleep worse for the first few weeks. So while they have a very important role in managing depression or anxiety that may be occurring together with insomnia, they are rarely used by themselves as an insomnia treatment. However, older antidepressants such as the tricyclics, amitriptyline, dothiepin and nortriptyline have mild sedation as one of their effects, so are often used to help with sleep, particularly when there is also pain. Mirtazepine can be a good fit for some people but tends to cause weight gain and carry over sedation in others. Agomelatine is a newer anti-depressant that also has effects on the melatonin receptor so has positive effects on sleep, particularly for those with associated depression or anxiety.

Atypical anti-psychotics: Although these medications were developed to help treat psychosis, because of their widespread sedative effects, they are sometimes prescribed to help with sleep. Drugs in this group include:

  • quetiapine (Seroquel)
  • olanzapine (Zyprexa)

Whilst the atypical anti-psychotics can be effective sedatives, they often result in people feeling overly sedated throughout the day. Also, in the longer term they can cause significant weight gain and have metabolic effects that can increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Medicinal cannabinoids: There are many different variations of medicinal cannabinoids which vary in the active agents and their dose, which makes it hard to interpret data on medicinal cannabioids for insomnia. However, one preparation (ZTL-101, now called Zenivol) was evaluated over 2 weeks in a small randomised controlled trial which showed people got to sleep on average 8 minutes quicker and slept for 64 more minutes. This preparation contains THC which in some states in Australia means you cannot legally drive whilst taking it.

 Related posts and links

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Showing 33 comments
  • Dr David Cunnington


    When sleeping tablets stop working, it’s often because there are other factors impacting on sleep or you’ve become tolerant to the medication. Either way, the best place to start is to see you doctor and talk to them about what is happening with your sleep.


    The SleepHub Team

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Thanks. As registered health practitioners we can’t give specific medical advice to individuals via the website and it’s not appropriate to do that in any case. Hence the advice to discuss your sleep medication with your doctor.


      The SleepHub Team

    • Trevor

      What is your view on long term use of Temazepam for diagnosed alpha intrusions? Thanks for you reply

      • Dr David Cunnington

        Trevor, It very much depends on the overall clinical picture, but this is something to be cautious about and discuss carefully with your treating team. There have been no clinical trials showing use of temazepam to reduce alpha intrusions results in better outcomes for people. So although it can make the EEG (brain waves) look different, that is not the same as improving people’s health or function.

    • marie

      The statement about anti-histamines being linked with dementia made me worry. But, then I did some further research and it appears that the study that made such a link noted the risk was found in people over 65 who had been taking anti-histamines (certain types) on a daily basis for more than three years. While the risk is real for that particular cohort, perhaps not as relevant to people who take an anti-histamine as an occasional sleep aid?


  • Kat

    Hi, are there any links with long term use of restavit and weight gain? I use 6.25-12.5mg 3-4 nights a week and have been doing so for about a year. I cannot lose weight I have gained in this time and don’t know if this is related.

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Not that I know of. Poor sleep is associated with trouble losing weight, so that may be a factor.

  • Annette Ferretter

    Just found your site. Thank you. My GP has just left and I have quite complex medical issues. Searching for a new Doctor who bulk bills in Redcliffe Queensland. Originally from Melbourne. Pleased to see .

  • Susie Connolly

    Very interesting. Not sure how it relates to me. I am 71 with five grown children and 10 grand children. My sleep is appalling and I take valerian which helps a little. I would be lucky to get one good nights sleep in three months. My brain is an absolute master at waking up and wanting to converse and play all night. I am beginning to think that at my age I really should be taking sleeping pills. I feel it is quite unimportant if I become addicted to them!!!!

    • Noel

      Hi Susie, I am male and similar age. I have other health issues that lead to waking at night, including chronic pain. However, I use Stilnox sparingly (1-2 nights in a row) to help me sleep. The third night there is likely to be a withdrawal effect, so expect that and sleep is restless. I do not recommend taking any sleeping tablet on a regular basis. One of our own self-defeating behaviours at night is “sleep hygiene”. This concept is important. If one goes to bed to watch TV, read or go on to some e-device, then one is not giving sleep a chance. I wake regularly and sometimes go back to sleep and sometimes not. I simply accept that and get on with what i can and can’t do. By the way, taking Stilnox long term can lead to heart damage and heart attacks, so limit its use and no alcohol when you want to take it. Heath Ledger, the actor, died with it in his system. Considering the effort he put into his craft, he may have found it extremely difficult to switch off. Best Wishes. Noel

  • Lisa

    My mum and I have both been diagnosed with narcolepsy. The only benefit to this has been access to the stimulant dexamphetamine, which I use as little as possible. Even when I was having it regularly, it never helped my sleep issues and thus why I have chosen to use it minimally (only a few tablets a week).

    My enquiry concerns my 17yo daughter, who has been having sleep issues since puberty and who is now to the point of chronic insomnia, where she hasn’t had more than an hour’s sleep in a night for months. As she has no more trouble staying awake during the day than someone else who is suffering from such extreme sleep deprivation, nor has ever had a narco episode (of falling asleep or getting severely dopey suddenly), I do not believe her to have narcolepsy.

    20mg of Tamazepam can’t get her to sleep either. Becoming more and more concerned for her future every day.

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Lisa, If you’re concerned about your daughter you should talk to her GP about her sleep and see about being referred on to a sleep clinic for specialist assessment and treatment. Something doesn’t add up though, as if she is really only sleeping 1 hour per night she should be falling asleep almost uncontrollably, and when a high dose of temazepam (20mg) doesn’t work it does make me wonder what else may be going on. You shouldn’t be concerned about her future, as insomnia is manageable, particularly at your daughter’s age.

  • Lesley Jujne Mooney

    AS A 84 year old lady I have peripheral Neuropathy which causes me to have problems with my feet when trying to go to sleep. I normally take hours to get to sleep ,only have about 4-5 hours a night or I wake up around1.30 and stay awake for long periods. Have been taking Temazepan about twice per week, circadin now and then or a blue chinese tablet in between. when I take nothing I rarely get much sleep at all. I try not to be addicted to them as have only been taking them since getting peripheral Neuropathy about seven years back .Have used natural tablets and tea which has no affect on me. what can I do?

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Sounds like your situation is quite complex, so best to discuss with your doctor. They may refer you on to a sleep clinic in your local area for assessment and treatment.

      • Betty Valle

        Can I get these meds thru the mail?

        • Dr David Cunnington

          Hi. We don’t dispense or provide any medications. Most of these are prescription medications and there are pharmacies that can mail out medication after being forwarded a prescription.

  • Lesley June Mooney

    Regarding my previous comment, I mean to say that I have only been taking Temazepan for few years and not the others which I started last year. I did have Temporal Arteritis before and was on Pregnisone for white a while, before getting the last complaint.
    Lesley June Mooney

  • Diane

    This is a great website with lots of useful information – thank you!

    • Heidi

      Hi, is it safe to use Restavit 3-4 times a week?

      • Dr David Cunnington

        Restavit tends to lose its effect pretty quickly if used regularly. It also has some anti-cholinergic effects that can cause long-term problems. If you are finding you need to use Restavit 3-4 nights per week, I’d suggest talking to your doctor about your sleep.

  • jason

    Dr David.

    Very interesting points on all the drugs mentioned above, and they are all drugs. It would be advantageous if you could educate GP’s on how dangerous some antidepressants and antihistamines/painkillers are. They should not be used for sleep, but their actual intended function.

    I have had some issue over the years mainly due to an over active brain. I used valarian once and my sleep architecture was wildly put of of wack for around two weeks. Varying Drs are too scared to prescribe actual sleeping medication, but are quite happy to advise using a antihistamine or an antidepressant, which is just plain wrong. Once used Endep and it actually made me depressed and then subsequently used Avenza (only two nights) (really dangerous for me).

    Stilnox has worked best overall, has not been a real issue other than for me it is addictive. Has worked for over 12 months. Nothing beats natural sleep without any aid.

    It is funny but US pilots will use Ambien for sleep and dexamphetimine before long haul flights or unfortunately bombing targets. Thing that gets me in Australia is we use the wrong drugs to treat certain conditions, due to government policy. Look at the problem Australia has with alcohol, my US friends cannot believe how backward we are.

  • Derick

    Many thanks for your site, I am a 46 year old male and have used 2mg Rivotril with 7.5mg Zopimed for years with little side effects. I’ve not slept since my arrival in Australia 5 nights ago. Please suggest what you are able. I have suffered deep trauma in S.A. and insomnia leads me down bad avenue’s. Any advise welcome.

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Derick, I can’t give you specific medical advice. If you are having trouble despite your usual medication, you should see a doctor who will be able to assess your situation and help you.

  • Tricia

    Hi my partner can’t get to sleep at night he constantly hears voices in his mind he wants to get help to sleep normally what is you’re advice for him?

    • Dr David Cunnington

      It’s important that your partner talks about his sleep problem with his doctor who will be able to assess his overall physical and mental health and provide advice on what type of treatment is needed. There are a range of treatments used for trouble getting to sleep, and which approach is dependent upon what is causing the problem.

  • Reply

    I’m a 64 year old woman with Chronic long term Insomnia. About 10 months ago I undertook a sleep program which involved seeing a Psychologist regularly, keeping a sleep diary and following a strict sleep deprivation regime. After about 6 weeks and a lot of new found information, I finally begain sleeping well…for a few months, now I feel I’m back to square one and want to once again sleep well.

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Barbara, the good part is that you know now what to do and successfully got your sleep on track using sleep restriction before. It’s common for people to go well for a while then have a setback. The key is to put the things you learnt back in to place. It’s also worth considering going back to see the psychologist you were working with for a ‘booster’ to help get things back on track.

  • Lena Franklin

    I have been on Sereqoul for 10 years after having days without sleep. I was on 50 mg, also Alodorm, and valium. This combination worked wonders for a long time. After my doctor stopped seeing patients I was still on the sereqoul, and valium but found it hard to find a doctor who trusted me.
    I also think I never should have been taking sereqoul because now I must have it to sleep at all. The time has come to switch to an more appropriate medications like serepax (amazing for me), back to Alodorm, or back to valium( but if need a LOT due to tolerance.
    This sleep sight has inspired me to seek help again instead of just plod along on a drug that isn’t the one for me.
    Keep on sleeping!
    Ps my sleep issues began as a child, then after a death, and stress, and abusive treAtment.PTSD, and general anxiety disorder, slight adhd, and insomnia are my issues.
    Good to read others issues with sleep!

  • Reply

    Hey David, this is a marvelous post. I just wish there was a perfect sleeping tablet.

  • Janet Smith

    I couldn’t agree more David. My doctor put me on Temazepan but only for 10 days he said that will be enough to put my sleep cycle back in sync. Was fantastic while on them but back to not sleeping again….

  • Abby K Fitzgerald

    I have been taking zopiclone for a few mths. I only take 1/2 a tablet, as it is the getting to sleep that I have problems with. I have tried melatonin and other stuff, but as I do shift work in a 24hr setting, it is impossible to get a sleep routine. I need to be able to sleep on demand. I suffer panic attacks when it is time for bed and just need something that will switch me off for 10 min. Any suggestions?

    • Dr David Cunnington

      Abby, I can’t give you specific advice about medication. You should discuss your symptoms with your GP, and if needed, they may refer you on to a sleep specialist.

    • Will

      I sympathise with you Abby, I specifically have trouble getting to sleep and have started shift work now which makes it even trickier. Early starts are a big problem if I’m not getting off until 3am etc. I’ve tried Melatonin, mildly successful. Restavit(too foggy), zopiclone(hit and miss) and currently on Gabepentin(nil effects so far). Prescribed pills are risky for me, as often I don’t nod off for hrs and then go to work worse off than if I just slept badly and didn’t take anything. My best option seems to be regular excercise and Melatonin nightly. And if I have an early start I’ll take zopiclone at like 8pm. Tried anti depressants as well, but it’s a bit like the chicken and the egg for me. I sometimes get quite flat about it all, but is it because I can’t sleep or can’t I sleep because I’m a little depressed! Aah what a rabbit hole, good luck.

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